Early Islamic Period (638 — 1099)  

Muslim Arabs conquered Palestine and arabised and islamicised the local population. The Umayyads based in Damascus (661–750) transformed Jerusalem (which became the third holiest Islamic city); built the Haram al-Sharif, which includes the Dome of the Rock and the Aqsa Mosque; and developed Ramla as capital of Palestine.

Under the rule of the Abbassids based in Baghdad (750–969), the Fatimids in Cairo (969–1073) and the Saljuqs in Damascus (1073-1098), Palestine continued to flourish and Jerusalem became a destination for Islamic pilgrimage and learning.

Era: Early Islamic Period (640—1099 CE)