Conquest of Palestine by the Romans in 63 BCE and establishment of cities such as Jerusalem, Caesarea, Sabastiya, and Beisan.
Appointment in 37 BCE of a vassal king, Herod the Great (an Idumean Arab), as ruler of Judaea.
During this time the ethnic make-up of the country included Jews, Samaritans, Idumeans and Nabatean Arabs, Greeks and Phoenicians.
Birth of Jesus Christ and spread of Christianity based on his teachings, and creation of the New Testament.
Two Jewish revolts against the Romans were suppressed. The first, in 70 CE, led to the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem; the second, in 135 CE (the Bar Kochba revolt), led to the razing of Jerusalem and the creation of a Roman colony – Aelia Capitolina – in its place.
Era: Roman Period (63 BCE—325 CE)