Alexander the Great conquered Palestine in 332 BCE, bringing it under the influence of Hellenistic culture, which impacted all aspects of life, art and architecture, philosophy and religion.
After Alexander’s death, his Middle East Empire was divided between two of his generals: Syria and Palestine under the Seleucides, and Egypt under the Ptolemies.
Jews led by the Maccabees revolted against the enforced ‘hellenization’, and an independent Hasmonean kingdom was established in 129 BCE. The Hasmoneans forcibly converted the Idumeans (early Arabs of southern Palestine) to Judaism.
Era: Hellenistic Period (332—63 BCE)