The Mamluks overthrew the Ayyubids, and ruled Palestine from Cairo. They defeated the Mongols at the battle of ‘Ain Jalut (near Nazareth) in 1260. Baybars conquered most of Palestine from the Crusaders by the time of his death in 1277.
The Mamluks were great patrons of the arts and sponsored large number of religious and secular buildings, constructed in a distinctive style. They also established an extensive network of khans (caravanserais) and postal stations, linked by a network of roads and bridges.
Jerusalem was further confirmed as a destination for Muslim pilgrimage and a centre of learning.