Massive population migrations led to the establishment of regional kingdoms in Palestine.
Phoenicians (descendants and heirs of the Canaanites) were seafarers and founded city states along the Syrio-Palestinian coast and maritime colonies along the southern shores of the Mediterranean.
Philistines (after whom Palestine was named) migrated from the Mediterranean, established a confederation of city states along the southern coast of Palestine, and manufactured iron arms and tools .
Hebrews (Israelites), a semi-nomadic Semitic people, settled in the central mountains of Palestine. They were culturally influenced by the Canaanites and were in conflict with the Philistines.
Era: Iron Age (1,250—721 BCE)