Following the Zangids, the Ayyubids waged a ‘holy war’ against the Crusader states in the Levant. Salah al-Din defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hittin in 1187 CE.
Palestine and Jerusalem were recovered, Islamic holy sites were restored and consecrated, and Islamic art and architecture were revived.
In 1229 CE, al-Kamil surrendered Jerusalem to the Crusaders within a peace treaty.
In 1244 CE, Jerusalem was recaptured by the Khawarizmians.
Era: Ayyubid Period (1187—1250)