Crusader Period (1099 — 1291)  

The Crusaders (Franks) conquered Palestine in 1099, followed by a process of colonization.

Jerusalem was sacked and its population massacred, and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was established, along with military orders to protect it.

The Franks established many cities, rural settlements, castles, churches, monasteries and industrial installations.

Era: Crusader Period (1099—1291)